Blueprint for Situation & Experience Learning
Barbara Daley (1999) built upon Dreyfus’ model of skill levels, with a study into the different learning processes used by ‘novices’ and ‘experts’. These are my observations of some of the key ideas from her paper: Novice to Expert: How do Professionals Learn?
- Learn through a process of ‘Concept Formation’
- Have little experience of real situations.
- Rely heavily on the rules they learned in their prepatory education
- Learn in one setting and transfer the knowledge over to their work environment
- Their learning process is affected by fear, mistakes and the need for validation
- Often describe feeling “overwhelmed”, “scared to death” and “terrified of making a mistake”
In contrast an expert in the same profession will use a more informal learning process:
- Learn through a process of ‘Constructivist Learning’
- Have an intuitive grasp of the situation
- Their knowledge base involves the integration of thinking, feeling and acting
- Have a knowledge based in practice rather than an apply/transfer theory to practice knowledge. They refer to having “a blueprint in their mind”
- Their active integration of concepts included an ability to “improvise”, “pick up little things” and “draw from experiences”